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I should have posted an update to let you know but I've been quite angry and stressed out as my laptop seemed to be the glue to my life and work! With that minor problem dealt with I am happy to say the signed posters are done, the envelopes and stamps and Wonderland tickets have been waiting patiently for the posters to join them and now all is well in the world again and they are all waiting to be posted so you lovely and patient backers will be receiving those rewards very soon. I just have the photo slideshow to edit now due to losing the first one but the photographer has kindly sent the pictures again so that is also in motion ready for one of my most faithful and lovely backers so watch this space!

May 26, Just wanted to post to let you know I have created the reward surveys adn am currently receiving information from you all so that i can honour your pledges. Whilst I've been writing down the information I've received so far and reading some of your messages to me i suddenly felt quite emotional and a little wobbly but in a good way. To think that each of you had taken the time and effort to help make this project happen continues to make my heart swell and give me a little lump in my throat at times. This project started as inspiration from my environment and my love to create magical and fun experiences plus the fact I was fed up of all the ideas I kept having staying in my head and becoming what I saw as failures because they weren't realised.

It was initially to be produced and performed by myself and 'Starlight Adventures' other session fascilitator for our happy campers of up to 20 people it's a small site. Then just from having a conversation at circus training with my friends the idea suddenly picked up momentum. They all wanted to be involved and sad all their friends and family would come so I created a facebook event page. Then I got contacted by Nix Rosewarne and Matt Dean who offered up more fab performers at which point the interest on the facebook event became bigger than I anticipated and so I created a Kickstarter project to help my idea grow at the same pace.

And before I knew it, I was receiving messages of encouragement and support from as far as Australia! We all loved doing it, the people that came to see have given us some lovely feedback too and for those of you who couldn't make it but supported the project, I am very happy to be at this stage of the process where your rewards are being organised with muchos gratitude and huge love.


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I'm printing posters this week, ordering poster and ticket holders too so I'm on the road for the posting part. Will have the lovely job of driving to find all the clever Wonderland performers that were involved to get each characters signature on the posters. Now there's something I could've thought threw and done at the event! Phew, sorry waffled away again. I'll leave you with a picture from Wonderland Part Deux to reward those who made it this far! May 19, It's been a busy few weeks since our second performance of Wonderland and I'd love to share with you all our developments.

Our photographers are working on the slideshow this week for all our backers that pledged for this!

And our brilliant and clever Wonderland muso has created an original piece of music for it which is very exciting!! I can't wait to see it!! I'm sure you all feel the same :. Our photographers are Falmouth Uni students and they all had their deadlines for projects last Friday 16th and have said they're focus will be on Wonderland this week! I was really honored when one of the photographers decided to change her final project at the last minute due to being inspired by Wonderland and the pictures she took at the event.

Her project was about people and passions and so she interviewed me last wednesday and I can't wait to see what she produces. Tastes like, uh, cherry tart. Custard, pineapple, roast turkey. What did I do? Pongo: Ho-ho-ho-ho-ho! You almost went out like a candle. Tulip Storks : But look! I'm just the right size. Pongo: Oh, no use.

I forgot to tell you. I'm locked! Tulip Storks : Oh, no! Pongo: Uh, but of course, uh, you've got the key, so Tulip Storks : What key? Pongo: Now don't tell me you've left it up there. Key appear on the top of table : Oh, dear. Pongo: Try the box Open box appear : Naturally. Tulip Storks : But goodness knows what this will do. Whoa, whoa, whoa, whoa, oh!

Pongo: I said, "A little of that went a long way". Now I shall n-never get home! Finishing on September 12, no rushes were available until December 3, when a black-and-white cutting print arrived. The colour pilots did not arrive until December Greens were rendered on the hard side, and light-soaked whites had a pinky halation. Flesh tints tended to be hot. The following August Mr. Catling had not seen his film. It therefore does not seem to be a very practicable proposition in England as yet. HOCH, W.

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Excerpts from the Specifications or abridgements by permission of the Controller of H. M Stationery Office. Coloured light is used in printing which will reverse or neutralize the effect of difference in the range of film densities in the negative gamma control. For negatives having a high contrast gradient, printing light is used of such wavelength as will produce a positive having a comparatively low contrast gradient, and vice versa. Thus, for a two-colour process employing red and green taking filters, ultra-violet and blue filters may be used for printing the positives.

The process is especially applicable to multicolour printing on a single film in which the contrast gradients cannot be equalized by development. Describes the exposure of two films through the celluloid and the superposition of the two films by cementing them back to back before development. Technicolor used double-width film at this period, and after printing it was folded with the images outwards. It is stated that the developer is to be pyro, subsequently bleaching with potassium ferrocyanide, fixing with hypo, etching away the soft gelatine, and staining the relief images so obtained.

The imbibition film is mounted for development after exposure on a thin metal band, or backing. Steel plated with copper is suggested. The metal strip ensures perfect registration when printing by imbibition upon a blank film. Processing machinery for dissolving away the unhardened gelatine with hot water which is flowed on to the film at opposite edges from several nozzles.

Weaver, E. The gradations in the high-lights of imbibition relief images are made more gradual than those in the half-tone parts by exposure of the film to uniformly distributed light, either previously or simultaneously with the contact printing of the image proper. The film may be rendered absorptive to light of a particular colour, and the uniformly exposing light may be of that colour.

The exposure to uniform light may be approximately the threshold exposure, and both exposures are made from the same side of the film, either from the emulsion side or the celluloid side. Either one or all of the images of a multicolour positive may have been thus exposed to uniformly distributed light. The densities in the shadows of imbibition reliefs are made at least as great as in the half-tone portions. The film is dyed with a dye absorptive to light of short wavelength, and printing is done with a light of short wavelength mixed with a light of long wavelength.

A sharp-cutting dye such as naphthol yellow is used, and it is used in as concentrated a form as possible. Quinoline yellow is mentioned as a restrainer permitting the use of maximum concentration of naphthol yellow. Printing apparatus for imbibition matrices. The machine enables one negative bearing two-colour records in alternating sequence to print two separate positive films; two printing lights are employed, one for each gate.

The type of negative used in this printer is that obtained with a beam-splitter camera of the type described in E.

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The arrangement of the images is the same as in E. Dyes for imbibition printing are highly purified in such a way as to remove any solid matter or impurities, so that the dye will be absorbed upon the printing matrix in accordance with the density of the printing image, without the formation of self-agglomerating components, and will also be freely imbibed into the receptive gelatine surface without diffusion and without the formation of layers or matter which tends to adhere to the surface or becomes detached from the printing matrix. To the dye solution may also be added a viscosity agent to prevent lateral diffusion, and this may comprise a second dye having relatively low penetration or dispersion, and high definition with respect to the film to be printed.

Two acidified dye compositions for red and green respectively are specified. Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian : Colour Cinematography. In the Hernandez-Mejia patents finally became available, and Technicolor initiated immediate steps toward perfecting a three-color dye-transfer, imbibition print system. This beam-splitter reflected part of the light to an aperture at the left of the lens and allowed the remainder of the light to pass through to a normally located aperture.

Three specially hypersensitized films passed through these two apertures. In the rear aperture, a single Super-X Panchromatic film was exposed behind a green filter. This filter transmitted both red and blue light, but excluded green. Behind the magenta filter were two strips of film, one behind the other. The front film in the bipack, being an orthochromatic emulsion, recorded only the blue components of the light reaching it.

The film carried a red-orange dye which absorbed the blue rays, leaving only the red to affect the rear film. The panchromatic film in the rear of the bipack thus recorded only the remaining red light. The three negatives record the primary color aspects red, green and blue of the scene, but they resemble ordinary black and white negatives.

For example, if a red barn were photographed in a green field with a blue sky overhead, the red record negative would have only the image of the barn, the green record negative would have only the image of the field, and the blue record negative would correspondingly have only the image of the sky. Each of these color separation negatives would then produce a special positive relief image matrix. These positives differ from ordinary positives in that the picture gradations are represented by varying thicknesses of hardened gelatin.

This strip, with the superimposed images in precise register, becomes the final completed print used in projection. Extreme control over the entire process was maintained by the Technicolor Company to insure optimum results. All features were shot on fewer than forty cameras owned and maintained by the company, and all release printing was confined to one of two plants—located in Hollywood and London. The films used in Process Number Four were made exclusively by the Eastman Kodak Company, and they possessed exceptionally low shrinkage rates. The subsequent registration of the three images was exact to within one-thousandth of an inch, with color fringing all but eliminated on even the largest screens.

By May of , the first three-component camera had been completed, and, under the direction of Troland, one unit of the Technicolor plant had been equipped to handle Process Number Four. The difference between the new process and Technicolor Process Number Three was truly extraordinary. There are now rich, deep blues and it is no longer necessary to avoid or to regret the existence of blue skies, blue water, and blue costumes.

The old process presented blurred outlines which were even harder on the eyes than its imperfect colors. Color producers today may again mishandle their medium. But at least they will have good colors, well focused, to abuse. Unfortunately, most producers were unwilling to try the improved system. After failing to interest the feature filmmakers, Kalmus turned his attention to those in the cartoon field.

These initial contacts also proved unsuccessful. Although the Silly Symphony cartoon utilized the new process, a regular animation camera was used. The starting point was staggered one frame for each pass, thus the resulting release print would contain the complete color record. Released in , Flowers and Trees was extremely successful. Within a short period of time the Silly Symphonies series in Technicolor began to make more money than Mickey Mouse films in regular black-and white. As a result, Disney contracted to produce both utilizing the new process in the spring of , 73 and in , The Band Concert became the first Mickey cartoon in full Technicolor.

Kalmus realized this and rewarded Disney by granting him exclusive cartoon rights to both Technicolor processes. This agreement later became a source of embarrassment. Once the success of color cartoons had been proved, the other producers again came around to Dr. Kalmus to get film—for their cartoons—Dr.

Kalmus said he was sorry but he did not have any film for them. This made the producers angry and left Dr. Kalmus in a difficult position. Mayer would naturally have no goodwill for Technicolor in anything else. And, after all, Dr. Kalmus was thinking of features, not cartoons, as the ultimate Technicolor good. It was almost two full years before competing studios were finally permitted to produce their animated shorts in Process Number Four. Finally, on September 1, , the exclusive arrangement with Disney expired, and Variety reported:.

Tri-color cartoons will dominate the field. The use of Technicolor in feature-length film production was still to come. Picture producers admitted they had been wrong concerning the value of color in cartoons, but none were willing to incur the risk or expense of producing a full-color dramatic film. In an attempt to spur interest, Technicolor lowered their base print price from 7 cents to 5.

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In the spring of , Merian C. John Whitney was an unknown to the motion picture industry. In one of his early tests he first photographed, with black and white, a woman dressed in orange, against a green background. Following this he recorded the same scene with the color camera. Inspection revealed a beautiful blending of colors as the actress moved back and forth in front of the backdrop. Then the designer took an important step which now promises a final combination of art and science. Jones called for first one combination of lights, then another.

This time a carefully planned interplay of colored lights proved that color film could be used to psychological advantage. It is altogether likely that Pioneer Pictures will lose money on its early productions, particularly since Mr. Whitney is determined to turn out pictures slowly, carefully, and expensively. But should Pioneer Pictures be sufficiently successful to inspire a color vogue among the standard producers, Technicolor stock would undoubtedly zoom. This is an important item, because although Mr.

Whitney does many things for fun he also does them for money. La Cucaracha an outstanding short. The Technicolor sequence in the ice-cream factory is a fantasy which will please the most fastidious. The lavish. Rouben Mamoulian replaced Lowell Sherman as director after the later became ill and died during principal photography. One day prior to its world premiere, Mamoulian told a Variety reporter:. When you look at an object, you see form and color. Pictures are primarily visual. Now with color pictures, the vision gets the other half.

With color, pictures are once more primarily visual—and now at last the perfect talking picture approaches. Although its faults are too numerous to earn it distinction as a screen drama, it produces in the spectator all the excitement of standing upon a peak in Darien and glimpsing a strange, beautiful and unexpected new world. As an experiment, it is a momentous event, and it may be that in a few years it will be regarded as the equal in historical importance of the first crude and wretched talking pictures.

Although it is dramatically tedious, it is a gallant and distinguished outpost in an almost unchartered domain, and it probably is the most significant event of the cinema. But one thing is certain about Becky Sharp. Its best is so good that it becomes a prophecy of the future of color on the screen. It forced this column to the conclusion that color will become an Integral motion picture element in the next few years. Variety held a similar opinion. General consensus of those who have analyzed the picture seem to be that its experimental flaws do not materially detract.

Also that film may mark the heyday of the artist as a production ace, just as sound spelled the rise of the electrician. Although Becky Sharp was not an unqualified hit, box-office receipts were encouraging enough for producers to photograph subsequent features with the three-color process. All of these films received mixed, yet generally favorable, reviews for their color work. None, however, approached the visual grandeur of The Trail of the Lonesome Pine , the first feature film utilizing Process Number Four to be photographed entirely on location. As Fortune magazine reported:.

For the three main ingredients of any hit show are cast, story, and setting and Pine is well enough equipped on all three counts to make it attractive to large masses of customers. The story heavy hillbilly drama is a dependable tear jerker. And the setting the Blue Ridge Mountains, hillbilly cabins, slouch hats and shotguns is as commonplace and as satisfying as the U.

But with color added to these orthodox boxoffice virtues, Pine has stepped from a second-rank to a near first-rank picture. Frank S. Nugent, writing for the New York Times , also took note of the significance of the film, calling it. Color has traveled far since first it exploded on the screen last June in Becky Sharp. The significance of this achievement is not to be minimized. It means that color need not shackle the cinema, but may give it fuller expression. It means that we can doubt no longer the inevitability of the color film or scoff at those who believe that black-and-white photography is tottering on the brink of that limbo of forgotten things which already has swallowed the silent picture.

Chromatically, The Trail of the Lonesome Pine is far less impressive than its pioneer in the field. Becky Sharp employed color as a stylistic accentuation of dramatic effect. It sought to imprison the rainbow in a series of carefully planned canvases that were radiantly startling, visually magnificent, attuned carefully to the mood of the picture and to the changing tempo of its action. The new picture attempts none of this. Paradoxically, it improves the case for color by lessening its importance. In place of the vivid reds and scarlets, the brilliant purples and dazzling greens and yellows of Becky, it employs sober browns and blacks and deep greens.

It may not be natural color, but, at least, it is used more naturally. The eye, accustomed to the shadings of black and white, has less difficulty meeting the demands of the new element; the color is not a distraction, but an attraction—as valuable and little more obtrusive than the musical score. Outstanding box-office takes were registered throughout the country. In Hartford, The Trail of the Lonesome Pine ran percent above the weekly average, and Fortune listed a number of additional statistics which were not ignored by the industry for long.

Its national boxoffice take is said to be 52 percent above average. Technicolor processed 5,, feet of film in , nearly ,, in and over one billion feet in An estimated nine billion dollars had been invested by in Technicolor films in Hollywood and Great Britain. It had taken twenty years for his dream to come true, and Kalmus had suffered one disappointment after another.

Many would have become discouraged and quit. Kalmus, however, maintained a remarkable level of enthusiasm and. His eventual success—where so many others had failed—is attributable in no small part to this unique blend of persistence and optimism. Perhaps this outlook -was best expressed when he wrote:. But there was something else too; there was always something just ahead, a plan for tomorrow, something exciting to be finished. Nowotny, Robert A.

New York: Garland Pub. In order to produce a three-color subtractive color process a new three-strip beam-splitter camera was developed Fig. The new camera employed a special optical system which exposed the green-sensitive negative film at one picture aperture and a bipack at a second picture aperture. The bipack consisted of a red-sensitive negative film which was placed emulsion to emulsion with a blue-sensitive negative film.

The front element of the bipack was the blue-sensitive film. To prevent any blue and green fight from reaching the rear red-sensitive film, the blue-sensitive emulsion, which was exposed through the base, contained a red-dyed gelatin overcoating which performed the dual function of antihalation layer for the blue negative and a filter which prevented all but the red light from reaching the red negative.

After exposure the three negatives were developed to a gamma of in a conventional black and white developer, fixed, washed and dried. As in the two-color process these matrices were developed in a tanning developer which tanned the gelatin in the image bearing areas leaving the remainder of the film unaffected.

After washing the film was immersed in a ferricyanide bleach which converted the silver in the image to silver halide. This was followed by a hot water etch which removed the main image-bearing gelatin leaving a relief image. The thickness of the relief varied with the density of the image which produced it. The silver that had been converted by the bleach was then removed by immersion in a fixing bath.

The three matrices then had a hardened gelatin relief image which corresponded to the red, green and blue components of the picture, and were ready for imbibition printing. Before the actual transfer was made to the blank transfer film, the sound track was printed from a black and white optical sound negative. From this a silver sound track was developed using a normal black and white developer. The track was fixed, washed and dried and the blank was then ready for picture transfer.

The three matrices were passed through temperature controlled dye baths where the hardened images absorbed dye in proportion to the degree of relief in various areas of the images. The dye transfer operation brought each dyed matrix while still wet into contact with a blank film on which the gelatin mordant receptive layer was already swollen.

The yellow dyed matrix was first to be brought into intimate contact with the blank in the transfer machine. During the transfer operation the two films were held in accurate registration on a continuous stainless steel pin-belt. After the major portion of the dye had been transferred from the matrix to the blank the films were separated and the matrix passed into decrocienating solution which removed any remaining dye, then it was washed and dried and was ready for re-use. The blank was washed and dried and was then ready to receive the cyan image which is transferred on top of the yellow image in accurate register.

Once more the blank was washed and dried and the magenta image was transferred on top of the yellow and cyan images. The fifth major change in the Technicolor process has been the replacement of the beamsplitter cameras and the three-strip negative film. With the introduction of Eastman Color Negative Film Type producers had available to them a film capable of producing a high quality negative color image without the use of special cameras. Further, since the processing steps used with this film were far less complicated than those required with previous color systems, processing was available at all of the major commercial laboratories.

Eastman Color Negative has become the almost universal film used in original photography. During production daily prints are made on Eastman Color Print film; when the picture has been finished and edited, matrices are made directly from the Eastman Color originals. After the matrices have been prepared the final prints are made by imbibition in the manner described previously.

Modified D was used to develop beam-splitter negatives for both the two color and three-color processes,. Note: These dyes given as an example of what could be used USP 1,, There is no data published as to the actual dyes used by Technicolor Corp. Ryan, Roderick T. London: Focal Press, pp. While Kalmus expanded the Hollywood plant, his technicians began the development of the three-strip camera that would be used in live action principal photography to generate the entire color spectrum for Technicolor Process Number Four.

The Hollywood Plant was equipped to handle a moderate amount of three-strip matrix manufacture and dye transfer printing. Unfortunately, interest in the Technicolor company was by then minimal. Few producers used the two-strip process, and the pitfalls of three-strip photography were unknown. Kalmus tried an alternate method of three-strip color photography to launch the process. Walt Disney had already made a technological breakthrough with Steamboat Willie in , the first cartoon that contained a synchronized optical soundtrack. Color was the next logical step.

Disney had almost completed a short titled Flowers and Trees in black and white when Kalmus approached him about shooting a three-color cartoon. Disney decided to take the plunge, and against the objections of his business partner and brother, Roy, scrapped the film and started again in color by painting the animation cells. To photograph the three colors, Disney and the Technicolor research department developed the successive exposure method, suitable exclusively for animation.

On each roll of black and white negative, the animation cells were photographed on three successive frames filtered to emit the red, green and blue spectrum of color in silver densities. A step printer was used to derive the three matrices, with each matrix exposing every third frame of the black and white negative.

The red, green and blue matrices were dyed with their complementary colors—cyan, magenta and yellow—and transferred onto the same blank stock used in the two strip process fig. The first three-strip Technicolor cartoon was an enormous success and won Disney his first Academy Award Best Cartoon of Disney signed a contract to shoot all animated films coming out of his studio in the Technicolor process and honored it until the shutdown of the Hollywood plant in Kalmus gave Disney a three-year exclusive on three strip-animated shorts while allowing the competing studios to use the two color method.

However, when MGM requested the three strip process for their shorts, Disney agreed to limit the exclusive to one year rather than incur the wrath of Louis B. Disney did not control the distribution of his pictures until , when he formed Buena Vista. The technique of successive exposure for animation became the standard for all Technicolor cartoons and was adopted by the other studios, including Paramount, Universal, Warner Bros, and MGM, in the thirties and forties.

While Disney continued to perfect the successive exposure method, Kalmus made a deal with finacier Jock Whitney to produce the first live action Technicolor film. To protect their investment, Whitney and his cousin, Sonny, purchased a large block of Technicolor stock. Before they committed to a full-length feature, a two reel short subject, La Cucaracha , was made as a test and released in by RKO 16mm dye transfer reprints were made of this film in for archival reference prior to the plant shutdown. Critics and audiences were impressed with the full range of colors. Three strip Technicolor was off to a good start.

The black and white negatives used in the three strip cameras were very slow, requiring a great deal of light to get an exposure and making shooting conditions even more uncomfortable than the two strip productions of the twenties. However, the results were so impressive it was worth the effort. Since the color blue was not present in the earlier two strip process, it was emphasized in Becky Sharp.

Red was the most vibrant color and tended to be used dramatically. Indeed, a whole article could be written about the creative use of the color red in Technicolor films from through This unique rendering of the red hue could not be replicated in any other color process although Kodachrome came close. Other features that used three strip Technicolor sequences included the last reel of Kid Millions the ice cream factory fantasy in and a sequence in House of Rothschild , produced by Fox the same year.

The three strip camera, used until the advent of color negative in the s, was a huge and cumbersome machine usually bolted to a crane or dolly on wheels. Three black and white negatives were threaded into the camera with two of them bipacked emulsion to emulsion fig. The three negatives were exposed through a prism that split the light coming through the lens. The prism had a gold-flecked surface, which split the light into two beams. The straight-through beam light coming through the lens not being reflected was exposed through a green transmitting filter onto one roll of black and white negative through the emulsion.

Therefore, the green black-and-white record which received direct light was the sharpest. The gold-flecked prism reflected the same beam of light at a right angle to the two bipacked negatives which were emulsion to emulsion , through a magenta filter transmitting blue and red light. The front negative was blue sensitive and contained a red-orange dye that absorbed the blue light, letting the red light pass through to the rear film of the bipack, which was red and blue sensitive.

The sensitizing dyes in the black and white negatives were washed away during development, leaving only the black and white image. The gold-flecked prism was used on all three-strip productions of the thirties. In the forties, Technicolor developed a silver reflected prism.

wendy swell in wonderland Manual

The coating of the prism was eventually changed, toward the end of the three strip era, to dielectric materials that controlled which colors were reflected through the prism more effectively and allowed more light to reach the negatives. In the early fifties, a new prism was developed that split the light three ways, eliminating the bipack negatives, but was never used, since color negatives replaced this method for principal photography. The exception was animated films, which continued to use the successive exposure technique. A change in threading up negatives for matrix manufacture was necessary because the cyan record was exposed through the base.

Therefore, the yellow and magenta records were threaded base to light as in the two strip method , and the cyan record emulsion to light. Since the registration of the three negatives that were exposed through a prism was not always precise, the matrix printer had a register glass that could be tilted in two axes to shift the image as much as plus or minus 0. After the switch to color negative in the fifties, this kind of matrix adjustment was not necessary, since matrices derived from single strip preprint did not have registration problems.

When Technicolor three strip films are converted to Eastmancolor today, however, few facilities have the capability of making these precise adjustments, and some registration problems occur. As previously mentioned, the green record in two strip productions was occasionally printed onto the blank first in a halftone image, which helped to fine-tune the shadow detail and contrast of the final dye transfer print.

Question about bringing food/drink to Wonderland

Although this also applied to three strip productions, there was another reason to expose and develop a gray black-and-white image under the dyes. The bipack records which received reflected light were not as sharp as the green record, which received direct light. By exposing the green record in a halftone black and white key image on the blank, apparent sharpness was increased. The Type 19 Gray Printers were Bell and Howell Model D machines that used an intermittent contact movement with a rotating drum shutter. The contact-printed gray image of the green record was manufactured in very close registration tolerance so there would be no fringing.

The gray component can be thought of as a black and white print of the green record that is half the density or darkness of a normal black and white print. If the green record was exposed as a standard black and white positive, the final dye transfer release print would have been too dark, thus the halftone gray exposure. After the advent of the color negative, the gray exposure was eliminated, with the exception of an occasional feature that used it for effect.

Moby Dick used a halftone gray exposure to desaturate the colors. Scene to scene and shot to shot color correction in the three strip process referred to as color timing was difficult. Generally speaking, the cameraman had to take a crash course with the lab to learn the ins and outs of color photography as dictated by Kalmus and staff. Since Technicolor supplied the equipment and handled all aspects of the process from negative developing through release printing, the terms were tough.

Studios were required to hire a color consultant, who influenced if not dictated what colors would be used and how they would be rendered in the final dye transfer release print. This may sound unreasonable, but Kalmus was a shrewd businessman and wanted to protect his interests. The film industry was always bogged down in litigation over patent infringements, and he wanted to protect those aspects of his process that were covered.

For editing purposes, a black and white positive copy of the green record was made referred to as a workprint that had the negative edge numbers printed onto the side of the sprockets. Once a final cut workprint was assembled, these edge numbers were matched to the green record in a synchronizer, which had the red and blue records threaded up. All three negatives were then matched shot by shot into the final cut three strip master and readied for matrix manufacture.

It should be noted that after the lillies were used as a reference, each black and white negative had to be timed and printed as a separate entity for exposure in the matrix printer. If this sounds complicated, it was. In the midthirties it took a lot of trial and error before a usable matrix could be made.

Eventually, the staff which was divided into departments on each floor of the plant became experts at color correcting the three strips of negative. Technicolor justifiably shared top billing with the stars on screen and in advertisements. Fades, dissolves, superimpositions and titles all had to be made on each separate record and spliced into the final cut negative. They were made on an optical printer which rephotographed the desired effect onto a fine grain black and white duplicate negative stock.

This was the same method used on black and white films except that it had to be done on each shot three times for Technicolor pictures. Silent films had to be hand cranked back and forth to expose the optical effect directly onto the camera negative since no acceptable duplicating stock existed in the twenties.

There was one important difference. For example, if a character walked out of a room and the scene dissolved to another location, the image would appear very sharp until the start of the effect and then suddenly get grainy and contrasty, all within the same shot. Theoretically, this would apply to dye transfer features as well, but the opticals were not as noticeably grainy.

Three strip productions used a vast amount of light during principal photography, which generated a good exposure and very dense, fine grain negatives. Because the records were so finely grained, the duplicate negatives used for the opticals were not as obviously grainy as in standard black and white features. As a result, for Technicolor opticals the entire shot, rather than just a portion of it would be duped off and incorporated into the final negative. The vivid dyes and contrast in the release prints also drew attention away from the optical effects.

With all of the expense involved in making three strip Technicolor prints, the lab did have two methods of saving money. During soundtrack and gray halftone exposure, a great deal of silver was washed off the blank stock and reclaimed. In the s, no gray image was used on dye transfer prints derived from Eastmancolor negatives, and even more silver was collected and resold. The blank film was also reusable if it did not come out. If the color components had not been applied at the proper ratio, the dyes were washed off and retransferred.

As mentioned earlier, part of the deal imposed on studios for every Technicolor production in this era was the presence of a color consultant. With her art background,. Natalie Kalmus was the obvious choice, although her department had more than one run-in with the studio cinematographers. The history of this end of the company is interesting. In , Natalie and Herbert divorced but kept it a secret from their staff and continued to live together for many years, an unusual relationship for the time.

Part of the divorce settlement was to make her head of this department. She became a powerful figure in the company during the three-strip years. Her staff included Henri Jaffa and William Fritzsche. Natalie had specific likes and dislikes when it came to color, which often put her and the other color consultants in conflict with the directors and cinematographers. Filmmakers like Alfred Hitchcock and David O. Selznick liked to experiment with unusual color effects and had to fight it out with the color consultants to get what they wanted.

Natalie preferred picture postcard beauty, which was the style of black and white productions as well, rather than realism or a stylistic use of color. After the introduction of color negative in the early fifties, the color consultants became less influential, since Technicolor began making dye transfer release prints of features developed at other labs. For example, the Giant color negative was processed at WarnerColor, while release prints were made at Technicolor. In these cases, color consultants had no input during production.

Haines, Richard W. The History of Dye Transfer Printing.