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Sort alphabetically. Sort by EU Contribution. Expand all. United Kingdom. South Korea. Rare diseases and genetic disorders under the microscope. Issue 22, May European outdoor noise pollution is above international recommendations. An EU study is successfully using a combination of methods, including vegetation barriers, to substantially lower the noise exposure.

Noise, outdoor, noise pollution, vegetation barrier, green urban area, green facade, acoustically absorbent.

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Permanent ID: doi Author s : Van Renterghem, T. Acoustics , Apr , Nantes, France. Author s : Hornikx, Maarten,Forssen, Jens. Author s : Geslain, A. Author s : van der Aa, Bart,Forssen, Jens. Author s : Van Maercke , D. Pages: , Author s : Jolibois , Alexandre. English Author s : Koussa , Faouzi. Author s : Koussa, F. Author s : Koussa , Faouzi,Defrance , J. Published in: Elsevier Applied Acoustics Published in: Acoustical Society of America Last update: 18 July Record number: English EN.

English en. Deutsch de. No suggestions found. Sign in. Results Packs. About us. Fact Sheet. Result in Brief. Objective Noise pollution is a major environmental problem within the EU. The social costs of traffic noise have been estimated to 0. Road traffic is the dominant source, and also rail traffic noise is significant. At the same time, road and rail traffic are expected to steadily increase, and the source strength is not expected to significantly decrease within the near future.

To reduce the outdoor traffic noise to a sufficiently low level for a good acoustic environment is a major challenge of high need. Here, we will focus on noise propagation abatement for the outdoor environment. Following the EU Directive on environmental noise, a series of major action have been taken in noise abatement, but the sustainability has rarely been paid attention.

The main idea of our project is to optimize the use of green areas, green surfaces and other natural elements in combination with artificial elements in urban and rural environments for reducing the noise impact of road and rail traffic. The project offers a variety of powerful abatement strategies that will make a cost effective improvement by its combination of approaches concerning: ground and road surface treatments; trees, forests and tall vegetation; greening of buildings and other surfaces; and innovative barriers.

The noise impact will be assessed in terms of sound levels including spectra and time patterns as well as perceived environment including annoyance, well-being and other health related aspects. The main objectives of the project are: to show by full scale evaluation that the proposed abatement methods work; to deliver noise prediction methods applicable to the proposed abatements, which can also be used in noise mapping software; to deliver assessment methods for the perceived noise environment; to deliver a good practice guide for the end-users; and to show the cost benefit, including the positive effect on urban air quality and CO2 neutrality, of the resulting noise abatement methods.

Topic s SST. Activity type Higher or Secondary Education Establishments. Website Contact the organisation. Administrative Contact Magnus Holmstrand Mr. Status Closed project. Start date 1 November End date 30 April Green defences against noise European outdoor noise pollution is above international recommendations.

Noise pollution, especially from traffic, has become a serious problem within the EU, with a majority exposed to an outdoor noise level exceeding World Health Organization WHO guidelines. Although indoor noise can be partially mitigated, control of outdoor noise is more difficult, yet can be achieved using green urban areas and surfaces. The general goals were to develop, test, verify and disseminate new noise-abatement methods employing natural and artificial means. The work was conducted according to four themes: barriers of natural and recycled materials, green belts, ground treatment and green facades on building roofs.

In addition, the project aimed to model and test various combinations of methods, to compare the costs and benefits, and to disseminate the outcomes. Other devices — including roughening elements on smooth ground and low, parallel walls — also resulted in an improvement. A low, vegetated barrier was built beside a road in Lyon, France. The effect was assessed using measurements in conjunction with responses to questionnaires. Other devices were also tested at other European sites.

Project findings were disseminated as a chapter handbook, and agreements with the publisher have been signed. An additional page summary brochure was printed in January , and distributed at a project workshop. The legacy will be a lowering of exposure and improved health for Europeans. Keywords Noise, outdoor, noise pollution, vegetation barrier, green urban area, green facade, acoustically absorbent. Final Report Summary - HOSANNA Holistic and sustainable abatement of noise by optimized combinations of natural and artificial means Executive Summary: The project presents methods to reduce noise from surface transport, by exploiting green areas and surfaces in urban and rural environments and inserting natural and artificial elements.

A majority of the EU population is estimated to be exposed to outdoor road traffic noise levels above the threshold suggested by WHO for onset of negative health effects. At the same time, road and rail traffic are expected to steadily increase, and the source strength is not expected to significantly decrease within the nearest decades.

Although indoor noise reduction can be achieved using conventional facade insulation and closed windows, it is a challenge to protect the outdoor sound environment from excessive surface transport noise. If both the outdoor sound environment and the access to green areas are poor, public health may be threatened in the long-term. Hence, methods of reduction are needed during the propagation of sound from source to receiver. The central outcome of the project is a toolbox of suggested noise mitigation methods.

The methods, which are substantiated by real life field cases, are being presented in the form of a brochure, a handbook and tables for engineering use, in addition to the publically available technical reports of the project and the scientific publications as result of the research work. Thereby we suggest moving beyond the current tools of traffic noise reducing measures.

Furthermore, the project presents perceived improvement of the sonic environment as well as good cost-benefit ratios for many of the suggested noise mitigation methods. Our results show that 1 m high acoustically absorbing barriers with vegetation can provide an excess attenuation of at least 8 dBA for a 1. By adding inter-lane barriers, reduction of noise from road vehicles as well as from trams can reach more than 10 dBA. However, the perceived improvement is shown to be comparably somewhat smaller, concluded to arise from the relative increase in low-frequency noise. The low vegetated barriers are also estimated to be cost effective, i.

Concerning use of trees, studies for a m deep belt show effects exceeding 5 dBA when planting schemes are optimized, as well as very good cost-benefit ratios. Also, the negative effect of wind on classical noise barrier performance can be limited by using the canopy of trees as windbreak, especially for motorway situations in open field. We show that by introducing particular types of grassland, an improvement by 2—3 dBA can be achieved compared with typical grass covers, and thereby an 8 dBA reduction compared with acoustically-hard ground, for a propagation distance of 50 m.

It is also shown that laying tracks in grass can reduce tram noise by 3 dBA compared to having tracks embedded in asphalt, with a comparably somewhat larger perceived improvement. Roughening elements on otherwise smooth hard ground has been shown useful for reduction of noise from surface transport as well as the use of low 0. For noise propagation to an inner yard, the effect of greening the roof is about 3 dBA for typical configurations with a flat roof and up to 8 dBA for a ridged roof. Project Context and Objectives: The project results in a toolbox for the reduction of road and rail traffic noise in the outdoor environment.

The project started in November ran until April All partners are shown in Figure 1. Noise pollution is a major environmental problem within the European Union. The corresponding number for rail traffic noise is lower but still warrants action. The social costs of traffic noise are significant. In a recent WHO report it was stated that "among environmental factors in Europe, environmental noise leads to a disease burden that is second in magnitude only to that from air pollution". Hence, a reduction is needed that works during the propagation from source to listener.

Whereas the indoor noise due to traffic can be reduced to a sufficiently low level for a good sound environment using conventional facade insulation and closed windows, the outdoor sound environment is more difficult to protect. Current tools for noise abatement may involve tall and acoustically hard noise barriers, road traffic speed limits and porous asphalt road surfaces. With the central project outcomes we aim at moving forward the state of art, using greening of buildings as well as vegetation on other urban and rural surfaces, innovative barriers including recycled materials, and new treatments of the ground and of the road surface, beyond the current tools of traditional, tall barriers, speed limits and porous asphalt surfaces.

The dissemination is made, in addition to the scientific publications in journals and conference proceedings, through a summary brochure presented at workshops and a handbook that is contracted with a publisher. Furthermore, a set of engineering tools in the form of tabulated insertion losses as well as the technical reports of the project are available through the project website. If the outdoor sound environment and the access to green areas is poor it may threaten the public health in a long-term perspective. The costs of having green areas and surfaces in urban and rural environments are well accepted and established without the noise issue being considered.

The main concept here is that exploiting these green areas and surfaces and at the same time minimize the noise impact on citizens of Europe leads to a better use of resources. The work was divided into a set of workpackages. In a fifth workpackage, combinations of the different abatement methods are modelled and evaluated, both perceptually and in terms if noise reduction in decibel, partly using field studies. The additional workpackages are on project coordination, cost benefit analysis and dissemination where the Handbook and seminars are planned. Results show that acoustically absorbing barriers of low height about 1 m can provide an excess attenuation of at least 8 dBA for a 1.

By adding inter-lane barriers, noise from road vehicles as well as from trams can be reduced by more than 10 dBA. Concerning use of trees, studies for a 15 m thick belt of show effects of about 3 dBA. For ground treatments, it has been shown that by selecting better types of grass ground, an improvement by 2—3 dBA can be achieved compared with typical grass covers, exemplified with an 8 dBA reduction for a propagation distance of 50 m.

Also, roughening elements on otherwise smooth hard ground has been shown useful for reduction of noise from surface transport as well as use of low, parallel walls 0. A low, vegetated barrier was designed and built followed by a full two-week measurement campaign.

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Simultaneous measurements were carried out on different sections of the street, with and without the barrier installed. Questionnaires distributed to a random sample of passers by were used in order to assess the impact on the perceived soundscape. In parallel, binaural recordings with dummy heads as well as ambisonic recordings were carried. The recordings have been used in laboratory listening tests to assess the perceived improvement. The other field studies include effect of: resonators in motorway road surface site near Berlin , grass ground for a tramway line site in Grenoble , hedges sites in Wolfratshausen, Grenoble, Milton-Keynes and Bradford , tall vegetated noise barriers sites in Wolfratshausen and Cannes , earth berm along a motorway site near Ghent and green roof in Eindhoven.

The project website www. A screen capture of the website is displayed below Figure 3. Project Results: Objectives of the project Below are listed the objectives of the project for the full duration. Perceptual effects are improved ii. Total cost over full lifetime estimated using life cycle analysis is lower iii. Non-acoustic appreciation of the living environment is improved iv. The CO2 balance is at least neutral For the first reporting period 18 months , work was started to fulfil objectives 1—4 as well as 8— Objectives 1—3 were achieved by M For objective 4, achieved by M42, simplified models have been delivered in form of results tables, accessible via the project website.

About the targeted noise reductions objectives 8—11 , a key deliverable report D2. This report together with the other reports of the technical workpackages WPs 2—5 give at hand that the aimed scope of the prediction methods objective 12 also has been met. Concerning objective 13, the key deliverables are D6. It is concluded in D7. It is concluded in both D7. The work directly linked to objectives 5—7 were started in the second period and are now finalized. The work on perception and annoyance objective 5 is reported in deliverable 6. The cost benefit analysis objective 6 is reported in deliverable 7.

High cost-to-benefit ratios were shown for a number of suggested mitigations, however it is estimated that only the measures with tree belts are CO2 neutral and that the effect on air quality is small. About the dissemination objective 7 , the workshops have been carried out Stockholm, Lyon, London, Munich , as reported in deliverables 8.

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The summary brochure was ready as a printed paper-version in January and is also downloadable from the project website. The work for the handbook is reported in deliverable 8. Publication is planned for autumn The project has reached its objectives. In workpackage 6, the different abatement methods are globally modelled and evaluated, both perceptually and in terms if noise reduction in decibel. The field studies of WP6 are partially aided by virtual means.

The dissemination work is carried out in WP8, with workshops, a summary brochure and a handbook. Main results in terms of potential noise reduction at a height between 1. All tasks of WP2 are finalized. Concerning WP3 and the numerical modelling of a tree belt above a finite impedance ground surface, it was shown that the ground effect could be treated separately from the tree scattering.

This can be considered as an important break-through, and allowed calculating in a much faster way many configurations. In addition, estimating the effect of finite length tree belts became possible, increasing realism of the simulations. The many simulations performed showed that a good choice of planting scheme could make a difference of more than 3. Also at lower filling fractions, a good choice of planting scheme makes sense and should be considered.

In addition, a forest strip was shown to have a positive influence in reducing negative effects of night-time ground based temperature inversion. Also, important results and conclusions have been attained concerning noise barriers in downwind conditions, limiting the negative wind effect by using the canopy of trees as windbreak. For the work in Task 3. All tasks of WP3 are finalized. A concluding work on the acoustic insertion loss of hedges has been made, based on a set of independent measurements made within the project, and reported in an added deliverable D3.

It shows that the noise shielding is usually limited to about 2 dBA for a rather dense hedge with thickness of at least 2 m, for a realistic road traffic conditions at low vehicle speeds. In WP4, numerical predictions have shown that a series of wall clusters each of which has a fractal height pattern maximum height 0. Calculations for a 2-lane urban road and a 1.

Furthermore, calculations suggest that replacing acoustically hard ground by a particular low compaction kind of soft ground starting 2. Predictions indicate that there is little noise reduction advantage in dividing the soft ground into strips or patches compared with a single soft ground area.

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In addition, a model to predict the insertion loss of an array of resonators has been developed and validated against laboratory measurements CTH , and the insertion loss of a roadside field of resonators has been calculated. Also, calculations to determine the absorption coefficient of combinations of porous media and resonators have been carried out, for use in road surfaces MBBM.

It is found that insertion losses due to recessed ground treatments starting closer to the source than raised ones are less affected by downward refraction. All tasks of WP4 are finalized. Numerical comparisons were made for a series of configurations. Scale model measurements have been made by HYU corresponding to the standard configurations, and the effects of vegetation have been examined systematically. Roof treatments, on the other hand, may give greater effect for courtyards, where e.

All tasks of WP5 are finalized.

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In WP6, task 6. Binaural recordings and questionnaires were made for the purpose of perceptual evaluation in WP6. The results of this campaign were analysed and used in WP6. Simulations in WP6. As it turned out to not be possible to repeat the Lyon experimental setup at other locations, for other mitigations, smaller test cases were sought in order to demonstrate the efficiency of mitigation on existing or ongoing projects.

In and near Berlin, measurements were carried out at 3 sites, selected in order to characterize 5 different road surfaces. The Zossen site was selected to characterize the reference road surface as defined used in the NMPB and Harmonoise methods. On the motorway, both porous asphalt and an experimental road surface incorporating resonators were measured. At the Gneissenaustrasse site, two different low noise surfaces were measured under urban traffic conditions. It was found that laying tracks in grass reduces noise by 3 dBA compared to tracks embedded in asphalt. In Wolfratshausen, a hedge separating a private garden from the nearby road has been removed and replaced by a vegetated barrier.


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Measurements were made before and after removal the hedge and after installing the green wall. The effect of the hedge was found to be approximately 1 dBA; the effect of the wall, more than 10 dBA at ground level. Monitoring of long term noise levels took place in Belgium before and after installing a large earth berm nearby a motorway with dense traffic, with effects up to 10 dBA. In Eindhoven, measurements were made before and after installing vegetated roofs on a new building block, indicating 2—3 dBA reduction of outside traffic noise.

Concerning task 6. The extension technique has been validated using numerical results provided by WP2, 3 and 4 as well as data from the Lyon Quai Fulchiron case study. For the purpose of this evaluation, a set of fictive but representative built-up sites has been created. In task 6. The auralization technique developed by CSTB has been adapted, fine-tuned and validated, based on experimental data from the Lyon and Berlin test cases.

Post-processing tools have been developed in order to simulate the different measurement methods and to produce numerical results directly comparable to the data. The auralization handles rolling and propulsion noise separately and the data from the Berlin test case have been integrated in order to simulate the effect of low and ultra-low road surfaces. For the Lyon and Gneisenaustrasse cases, combined solutions based on low barriers and low noise surfaces have been simulated, allowing for reductions of maximum levels by up to 10 dBA.

About the perceived effect of abatements, listening experiments have been conducted using binaural recordings from Lyon, Quai Fulchiron. The results complement those obtained in the questionnaire study. Further analyses of questionnaire data from Lyon, Quai Fulchiron was conducted with focus on correlation between acoustic measurements and various advanced as well as simplified soundscape quality indicators. Work has been conducted on applying advanced models for sound source identification Notice-event-model to predict questionnaire responses collected in the Quai Fulchiron-study.

Further work in this subject would be of interest since the Quai Fulchiron case was dominated by road-traffic noise also after treatment, leaving little room for variation in perception of other sounds. Further conclusions from task 6. Psychoacoustic analyses relating questionnaire response to acoustic variables suggested that annoyance apart from being strongly related to overall level of the noise also was related to the relative proportion of low frequency noise. This is relevant for the evaluation of noise barriers which in addition to reducing the overall level also changes the spectral content of the noise by reducing high frequency noise more than low frequency noise at the shielded side of the barrier.

However, there was a slight tendency for the annoyance reduction to be slightly less than would be expected from the reduction in A-weighted sound pressure level SPL. Assessment of perceived overall quality was found to be closer linked to perceived visual than to perceived auditory quality of the locations. This shows the importance of considering visual aspects when introducing noise mitigation methods. In addition, the proportion of natural, human and traffic noise sources in the soundscape may be evaluated through listening tests, or using automated source recognition software under development.

All tasks of WP6 are finalized. Statistical, measurement, and assessment errors are incorporated into the framework and the tool has been applied to green roofs and vegetated facades. A facility for running different alternatives and compare them in one and the same run has been implemented, allowing the direct comparison of competing alternatives.


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The complete analysis of abatements from technical WPs is reported in D7. Deliverable 7. In addition to porous asphalt showing a good economic performance, novel measures developed and refined as part of the project have the potential of not only being cost efficient that is provide more benefits than costs , but in some cases seem to be robustly efficient providing benefits more than twice the cost.

Economic analyses of a combined measure have also been made, where brick lattices are used in combination with porous asphalt with or without buried resonators. By combining measures, it is possible to attain environmental noise limits, or improve the neighbourhood soundscape more than what is possible with measures targeting sources only.

The input data contains uncertainties. However, Monte Carlo results suggest that even after a potential downward adjustment of the valuation of aesthetic benefits, aesthetics will still remain important. If the results from the economic analyses presented here hold up in follow-up studies, the role of local noise abatement efforts targeting noise propagation cannot be ruled out on economic grounds. They will then have their place both as a supplement to noise reduction at the source, and as part of more holistically motivated urban improvement plans.

All tasks of WP7 are finalized. Details of work progress in WPs 2—7 WP2 Progress towards objectives and significant results Objective To carry out a state of the art study of acoustical models dedicated to barriers with vegetation, also considering recycled materials To produce and apply porous acoustic products made from a range of recycled polymeric and elastomeric industrial waste using a novel extrusion process Associated tasks and deliverables T2.

Make an inventory of vegetated shielding solutions and recycled porous materials as well as state-of-art description of models for outdoor sound propagation and acoustical properties of materials D2. Porous acoustic products made from a range of recycled polymeric and elastomeric industrial waste have been produced and applied using a novel extrusion process.

Another class of material has been extruded using tyre shred residue for this project, the vibro-acoustic and thermal performance of this material is more superior compared to car dashboard crumb. Tyre shred residue consists of rubber crumb bonded to short fibres fibres are the contaminate , it comes ground ready to use and has excellent potential for acoustic and thermal properties. It has been exemplified for use in combination with a green wall. Porous products made using tyre shred residue have been characterised and show good vibro-acoustic and thermal properties compared with commercial products.

Objective To characterise the acoustical properties of the recycled porous materials in the laboratory To make choices of available prediction methods and to adapt them to each specific application Associated tasks and deliverables T2. Numerical, analytical or hybrid models will be chosen and adapted to the applications of Task 2. A paper on the modelling of sound propagation in thickets by means of a periodic BEM approach has been presented at Forum Acusticum Objective To characterise the acoustical shielding effect of plants To carry out simulations of innovative vegetated barriers Associated tasks and deliverables T2.

The models of Task 2. Participation in finding an experimental test site in Lyon for a low height vegetated prototype Quai Fulchiron. The results from Task 2. WP3 Progress towards objectives and significant results Objectives Make an inventory of acoustical effects of trees, shrubs and bushes based on literature review, as well as on measurements and numerical modelling. Species are identified with interesting acoustical properties for different types of applications roadside trees, street canyon set up, forest, etc.

Associated tasks and deliverables Task 3. Inventory of scattering, diffraction and absorption by different species of trees, shrubs and bushes TSB , including measurement campaigns and numerical modelling. Literature will be studied as a starting point, and complementary measurements will be performed. For the latter, a measurement methodology will be developed. It will be investigated how the effect of TSB can be incorporated in typical outdoor sound propagation models. Deliverable 3. Technical Report on acoustical characterisation of TSB species.

Technical Report on acoustical effects of hedges. Progress and Results This is a supportive task aiming at providing basic information for other technical work packages. Most work has been performed in the first period of the project. Measurements: In addition, measurements near hedges in-situ have been performed, both with dedicated in-situ methodology a parametric loudspeaker array and drive-by tests. This work has been performed by many different partners in the consortium, and finally summarized within WP3 in a separate added report D3.

Although the noise shielding is very limited — it is the first time that it is quantitatively assessed — the more there are often wrong expectations, which could be linked to psycho-acoustical effects. An important achievement is to come to conclusions based on results that at first sight appear rather divergent. Modelling: Simplified modelling approaches seem to correspond well with the parametric loudspeaker array test. In rare cases, high transmission loss is predicted for very dense hedges , beyond expectations.

Further analysis is needed whether this can be achieved in drive-by tests as well. Leafs on porous substrates like e. Typically, at low frequencies, absorption enhancement is observed, while at high frequencies a decreased absorption is obtained. The increase at low frequencies could be relevant for road traffic noise applications.

Such behaviour could be modelled with high accuracy with the FDTD method. In this way, the damped vibration modelling is validated for a second time first in case of pressure differences measured over a single leaf, and now for leaf-porous substrate system. A journal paper, to be submitted to Applied Acoustics, on the hedge measurements is in preparation. Objectives Investigate and optimize effects of planting schemes and exploit array periodicity to increase effects when possible Associated tasks and deliverables Task 3.

Investigate and optimize planting schemes for traffic noise attenuation in typical traffic situations, including sonic crystals. This research includes scale model studies and numerical simulations. Technical Report on periodic planting schemes including practical aspects. Progress and Results The previous research on this topic allowed to simplify tree belt calculations, namely considering sound propagation in two orthogonal planes: one to predict scattering and shielding by stems, and another one for the sound-soil interaction.


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  4. Objectives Investigate and optimize the effects of trees in modifying the ambient meteorological conditions Associated tasks and deliverables Task 3. Investigate and optimize effects of TSB on micrometeorology: wind, temperature, and humidity effects.

    This task will be performed mainly by numerical modelling. Technical Report on designing optimal refraction using vegetation and trees. Progress and Results It has been found that the effect of relative humidity RH differs strongly from its effect without vegetation.

    A forest strip was shown to have a positive effect in reducing nightly ground based temperature inversion effects. This comes at a slightly worse shielding during daytime by limiting the temperature decrease with height. Overall, this is estimated to be an additional benefit of a belt of trees. Most effort has been put in limiting wind effect near shadow zones by using the canopy of trees as windbreak. Near berms, the use of trees was shown to yield no benefits.

    For a single noise wall, canopy design is useful. Strong improvements under wind conditions are possible at short distance when the bottom of the canopy touches the barrier top. This comes however at the cost of having a worse situation at longer distance downwind. When a gap is left, a global optimized improvement in downwind shielding is obtained, and negative effects by placing a row of trees are not expected. For double noise barriers, strong improvement by trees at short distance is expected, and negative effects at larger distances.

    Analysis of reducing refraction in case of different noise reducing devices single vs double noise barrier, berms and the effect at longer distances downwind potentially negative are two important aspects that have not been reported before the results of this project. Objectives Optimize scattering properties of tree crowns Associated tasks and deliverables Task 3. Optimize scattering properties of tree crowns including artificial trees and scattering by forests.

    This task will be performed mainly by numerical simulations. The concept was shown to be successful. Different modelling approaches, like multiple-scattering theory, boundary element and finite-element modelling have been applied. Optimisation by genetic algorithms has been looked at to further increase shielding. A potential advantage of a porous barrier, namely decreasing wind effects, could not be confirmed. The main goal was analysing such a completely new type of noise reducing device, and developing the necessary tools. It was shown that this idea is sufficiently strong to further work upon.

    Based on using no more than two parameters for infinitely thick ground or three if a ground is better modelled as a hard-backed layer, and comparisons of resulting predictions with short range propagation data from 29 grasslands, 13 forest floors, 4 gravel and sand surfaces, 1 porous asphalt and 1 railway ballast, models and parameters have been proposed for various ground types in D4. An extended version of this review has been published in J. Objective To derive models for the acoustical effects transmission loss of ground treatments viz.

    Progress and Results Semi-analytical predictions, numerical predictions and laboratory measurements have shown that deliberate introduction of 2D or 3D roughness on otherwise smooth hard boundaries can contribute usefully to reduction of noise from surface transport. But I received mercy because I had acted ignorantly in unbelief, and the grace of our Lord overflowed for me with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. The saying is trustworthy and deserving of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am the foremost. But I received mercy for this reason, that in me, as the foremost, Jesus Christ might display his perfect patience as an example to those who were to believe in him for eternal life.

    To the King of the ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. This charge I entrust to you, Timothy, my child, in accordance with the prophecies previously made about you, that by them you may wage the good warfare, holding faith and a good conscience. By rejecting this, some have made shipwreck of their faith, among whom are Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I have handed over to Satan that they may learn not to blaspheme.

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