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  1. La olla a presión del conflicto palestinoisraelí
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Expatriates were fast to establish their own exile press. Their efforts hit fertile soil in Depression-era communities that were already hotbeds for union and socialist organizing. Many Hispanic labor and socialist organizations, in which Spanish immigrant workers were prominent, published newspapers supporting the Republican cause: the long-running anarchist paper Cultura Proletaria Proletarian Culture, — , El Obrero The Worker, and Vida Obrera Worker Life, Hispanic Periodicals Spanish Civil War.

Exiles and political refugees have continued to make up an important segment of Hispanic immigrants to the United States. With the Cuban Revolution, along with U. Beginning in , a new wave of refugees from the Cuban Revolution established a widespread exile press as well as a more informal network of hundreds of newsletters. Chileans, Salvadorans, Nicaraguans and other Latin American expatriates have all issued political newspapers and magazines in recent years. As the Hispanic population of the United States continues to grow it is estimated to reach one-third of the total population by , and as the economy of the United States becomes more internationally integrated through agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, U.

But more than that, Hispanic political refugees have always represented an important immigration trend in the development of Hispanic communities within the United States. Their knowledge and perspectives live on in Hispanic culture today; the refugees did not always return to the homeland. Many of them and their children intermarried here with other Hispanic natives and immigrants; many of them and their children eventually blended into the grand community that is recognizable today as a national ethnic minority.

Scholars of the press have confused ethnicity with immigrant status when studying the press of Hispanic groups in the United States. For instance, Sally M. Many Hispanic newspapers, especially in the Southwest, were not related to immigration in the nineteenth century, but were created by and for long-standing native residents. Then, too, much of the periodical production of Hispanics since the nineteenth century has been created and sustained by second, third and fourth generations.

Language, too, is an issue that is not as clear cut as Miller would have it. Many of the nineteenth-century periodicals of Hispanics were Spanish-English bilingual.

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There were even some that were Spanish-French bilingual and Spanish-Italian; and a notable Tampa newspaper, La Gaceta, has been trilingual English-Spanish-Italian since its founding in I would apply the Wynar definition below of the function of the ethnic press, not to the exile press at all, but to Hispanic immigrant and ethnic- minority newspapers:. It is by providing the sense of shared identity and common consciousness that the ethnic press serves as the cementing element within the community.

The function of the press, as one of Hispanic Periodicals the major educational agents within the ethnic community, evolves from that of a primarily immigrant society to that of an established native American ethnic community. While the community still remains in its immigrant stage, the press primarily serves as the major tool of adjustment. By printing American news, describing the American way of life, and interpreting the conditions, customs, laws, and mores of the new society, the immigrant press eases the process of adjustment and consequently hastens the assimilative process.

While the immigrant press acts as an agent of assimilation, at the same time it also functions as a force that retards assimilation. I believe it is best to differentiate between an immigrant press and an ethnic or ethnic-minority press. Since the mid-nineteenth century, Hispanic immigrants have created periodicals serving their enclaves in their native language, maintaining a connection with the homeland while helping the immigrants to adjust to a new society and culture here. The Hispanic immigrant press shares many of the distinctions that Park identified in in a study on the immigrant press as a whole.

To summarize, then, the immigrant press serves a population in transition from the land of origin to the United States by providing news and interpretation to orient them and facilitate adjustment to the new society, while maintaining the link with the old society. A Brief History Americans and there would no longer be a need for this type of press. For Park, the immigrant press was a transitory phenomenon, one that would disappear as the group became assimilated into the melting pot of U.

The attitude of not assimilating or melting, in fact, has characterized the Hispanic immigrant press from the nineteenth century to the present. Therefore, if no improvement will be achieved, and we are all convinced of that, why should we renounce the title of children of the Republic of Mexico. Hispanic newspapers were especially sensitive to racism and abuse of immigrant rights. Immigration from Spanish-speaking countries has been almost a steady flow from the founding of the United States to the present, and there seems no end to the phenomenon in the foreseeable future.

The immigrant newspapers of individual Hispanic groups do, however, seem to give way over time to newspapers serving more than one Hispanic nationality; and the children of this readership may consume English-language or bilingual periodicals Hispanic Periodicals that serve ethnic-minority interests rather than immigrant ones. The immigrant press is not to be confused with the native Hispanic press, to be addressed in the next section. The native Hispanic press developed first in the Southwest in the mid-nineteenth century and later in most Hispanic communities, and has served a readership predominantly of U.

Unlike the immigrant press, it does not have one foot in the homeland. What follows immediately is a brief survey of newspapers serving newly arrived communities of Hispanic immigrants. Of course, the diverse and often conflicting missions of Hispanic newspapers were and are not always clear-cut. But their largest readership was—and, for those that still exist, continues to be— Spanish-speaking immigrants. Furthermore, while a newspaper may have been founded to serve an immigrant or exile group, as the community evolved, so too may have the newspaper from an immigrant journal into an ethnic-minority newspaper.

El Amigo del Hogar was founded in Indiana Harbor, Indiana, in by religious and political refugees, but soon was taking on many of the responsibilities of a typical immigrant newspaper and even fought civil rights battles with local businesses and authorities. It ceased publication during the Depression and was reincarnated in by the same family of printer-publishers, the Figueroas, as The Latin Times. Since its establishment, the weekly has been a predominantly English-language newspaper designed to provide an alternative news source, relevant to the concerns of the Mexican-American and the growing Puerto Rican communities of East Chicago.

The Latin Times has always served as a watchdog over local politics and as a defender of the civil rights of Hispanics. A Brief History With these distinctions in mind, then, the following are some of the more important immigrant newspapers. While El Mercurio de Nueva York — and El Men-sagero Semanal de Nueva York — may have served immigrant populations and functioned somewhat as described above, it was not until much later, when larger Hispanic immigrant communities began to form, that more characteristic immigrant newspapers were founded. From the s through the s, San Francisco supported the largest, longest-running and most financially successful Spanish-language newspapers in the United States.

And the ownership and editorship of many of these papers was made up of immigrants from Spain, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. The newspapers reported on discrimination and persecution of Hispanic miners and generally saw the defense of the Hispanic colonia to be a priority, denouncing abuse of Hispanic immigrants and natives. Hispanic readers in the Southwest were acutely aware of racial issues in the United States, and sided with the North during the Civil War, which also was extensively covered in the newspapers.

It was thus Los Angeles in the twentieth century that, along with San Antonio and New York, supported some of the most important Spanish-language daily news Hispanic Periodicals papers, periodicals that began as immigrant newspapers. Between and , some half million Mexican immigrants settled in the United States; Los Angeles and San Antonio were their settlements of choice.

Into these two cities an entrepreneurial class of refugees came with cultural and financial capital sufficient to establish businesses of all types to serve the rapidly growing Mexican enclaves; they constructed everything from tortilla factories to Hispanic theaters and movie houses, and through their cultural leadership in mutual aid societies, the churches, theaters and newspapers, they were able to reinforce an nationalistic ideology that ensured the solidarity and insularity of their community, or market, if you will. In addition to being home to important existing Mexican communities, Los Angeles and San Antonio were chosen by the new economic and political refugees because both cities were undergoing rapid industrialization and modernization, and work and opportunities were available.

Los Angeles and San Antonio were also good bases for recruitment of agricultural and railroad workers. The flood of Mexican workers into both cities spurred the founding of numerous Spanish-language newspapers from until the Depression; each of these two cities supported more Spanish-language newspapers during this period than any other city in the United States. The focus of the newspaper was local, national and international in scope. However, news coverage was oriented to events in Mexico and the United States, particularly in California, that were of interest to Chicanos.

Other news pertaining to U. A Brief History the largest proportion of its coverage to news of the homeland, followed by news directly affecting the immigrants in the United States, followed by news and advertisements that would be of interest to working-class immigrants. In fact, both the immigrant and the ethnic-minority press shared this mission and proudly announced it often on mastheads, in editorials and in El Nuevo Mundo San Francisco prospectuses.

The defense of the Hispanic community within the larger society, perceived as alien and hostile, was a mission shared by such newspapers throughout the Southwest, the Midwest, Florida and the Northeast. We do not expect financial compensation. Ours is amateur and disinterested journalism. Hispanic Periodicals We feel the immediate necessity of taking up important issues pertaining to our common defense. This defense of the Mexican immigrant community was primary even in a Midwestern Spanish-language newspaper like El Cosmopolita The Cosmopolitan, — , despite its being owned by Jack Danciger, an Anglo-American businessman intent on selling alcoholic beverages and other products imported from Mexico to the Mexican colony in Kansas City.

The newspaper protested against segregation, racial prejudice, police harassment and brutality, injustice in the judicial system and mistreatment in the work place. But, as Kansas City was a railroad center, as well as a labor market for the Midwest, its Mexican immigrant community probably consisted of a higher percentage of laborers and did not attract as many political refugees and Mexican bourgeoisie as did El Paso, Los Angeles and San Antonio.

El Cosmopolita tried to maintain a balance between protecting the rights and interests of its community and urging the community to better itself, especially through education Smith, 77 ; and while the newspaper did promote Mexican and Hispanic culture, and pride in these, it does not appear that the editors and writers were as fervent in promoting these as their counterparts in the newspapers of the Southwest. For the Mexican immigrant communities in the Southwest, defense of the civil and human rights also extended to protecting Mexican immigrants from the influence of Anglo-American culture and Protestantism.

The publishers, editori Mexican Catholicism in the United States was further reinforced when the Cristero War produced a flood of refugees, including the Church hierarchy, into the U. Mexican national culture was to be preserved while in exile in the midst of iniquitous Anglo Protestants, whose culture was aggressively degrading even while discriminating against Hispanics.

The ideology was most ex-pressed and disseminated by cultural elites, many of whom were the political and religious refugees from the Revolution. They represented the most conservative segment of Mexican society; in the United States, their cultural and business entrepreneurship exerted leadership in all phases of life in the colonia and solidified a conservative substratum for Mexican-American culture for decades to come.

And these educated political refugees often played a key role in publishing. In a philosophical, cultural and biological sense, the ideology ensured the preservation of the group in an environment where Hispanic women were in short supply and seen as subject to pursuit by Anglo-American males, where the English language and more liberal or progressive Anglo-American customs and values were overwhelming and where discrimination and abuse against Mexicans occurred.

Park noted that the immigrant press of all groups tends to be highly nationalistic: The nationalistic tendencies of the immigrants find their natural expression and strongest stimulus in the national societies, the Church, and the foreign-language press—the institutions most closely connected with the preservation of the racial languages.

In these, the immigrant feels the home ties more strongly; they keep him in touch with the political struggle at home and even give him opportunities to take part in it. Both consciously and unconsciously they might be expected to center the immigrants interests and activities in Europe and so keep him apart from American life. Park further makes clear that, as seen through their press of late nineteenthand early twentieth-centuries, immigrants did not come to the United States to assimilate its culture: But foreign-language institutions and agencies, the Church and the press and the nationalist societies, have sought not merely to protect against assimilation those immigrants who were here temporarily, but to protect among those who would remain permanently in the United States the traditions and language of the home country.

At least, some of the leaders among the immigrant peoples have thought of the United States as a region to be colonized by Europeans, where each language group would maintain its own language and culture, using English as a lingua franca and means of communication among the different nationalities. To them, the poor braceros and former peons were an uneducated mass whose ignorant habits only gave Anglo-Americans the wrong impression of Mexican and Hispanic culture.

To such self-exiled elites, many Mexican Americans and other Hispanics long residing within the United States were little better than Anglos themselves, having abandoned their language and many cultural traits in exchange for the almighty dollar. It was, therefore, important that la gente de bien, this educated and refined class, grasp the leadership of the community, down to the grass roots, if need be, in the holy crusade of preserving Hispanic identity in the face of the Anglo onslaught. Among the most powerful of the political, business and intellectual figures in the Mexican immigrant community was Ignacio E.

With the business training and experience that he received in Mexico, Lozano was able to contribute professionalism and business acumen to Hispanic journalism in the United States, resulting in his successfully publishing two of the longest-running Spanish A Brief History language daily papers. The ideas of Torres and Lozano reached thousands not only in San Antonio but throughout the Southwest, Midwest and northern Mexico through a vast distribution system that included newsstand sales, home delivery and mail. La Prensa also set up a network of correspondents in the United States who were able to report on current events and cultural activities of Mexican communities as far away as Chicago, Detroit and New York.

In his business and marketing acumen, he sought to reach broader segments and all classes, in part by not being overtly political or partisan of any political faction in Mexico and by recognizing the importance of the Mexicans who had long resided in the United States.

Lozano made the indisputably correct decision of basing his work on the Mexicans that had resided for many years outside of the national territory. They were humble and barely educated people, but in spite of having existed far from Mexican soil, had preserved intact the traditions and customs of our ancestors. Because he united with a permanent public, Lozano had given La Prensa a solid base that, at that time, was unmovable. Bruce-Novoa has commented that Mexican Americans themselves felt very Mexican and that La Prensa gave them an opportunity to see themselves as still part of that nationality: I would venture to suggest that a good percentage of the native population of central and south Texas, even some who had never been in Mexico, wanted to be Mexican and considered themselves Mexican, perhaps because the Anglo Americans kept telling them they were exactly that.

For these people Lozano provided a vehicle through which they could play out their illusion in a way previous Spanish-language newspapers had not made possible and that English-language publications could never do. And when exiles cannot return, they dedicate themselves to justifying their existence in a dual manner: they manipulate the image and significance of their residence outside their country by discrediting what the homeland has become; and two, they set about proving that they are the authentic bearers of the true tradition of the homeland and even of the ideals of the attempted revolution.

Thus, they must declare the revolution a failure, at least temporarily, because only they have remained faithful to the true patriotic ideals. Eventually this exercise in self-justification leads to the claim that the homeland has actually moved with the exiles, that they have managed to bring it with them in some reduced form, and that if the opportunity should arise, they can take it back to replant it in the original garden of Eden. In fact, many of the expatriates and their families never moved back to Mexico, and their children became United States citizens and the newspaper continued to serve them and their children until the early s.

La Prensa was able to evolve with the community into ethnic minority status and provide ideological A Brief History and political analysis for the post-war Mexican American civil rights movement. They finally realized that they belonged here, and they organized vibrant, aggressive organizations such as the Knights of America, the Sons of America and LULAC to ensure for the new citizen, the Mexican American, his right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

Unfortunately, La Prensa did not survive long enough to see the Chicano Movement of the s, the civil rights movement that promoted a cultural nationalism of its own. La Prensa suffered a slow death beginning in , when it reverted to a weekly and then was sold repeatedly to various interests until it shut down forever in As her influence became weaker and weaker, she reluctantly lost her hold on our people and gave way to progress and passed on to the world of bittersweet memories.

But in her day La Prensa was indeed influential. Business-men such as Lozano captured an isolated and specialized market. They shaped and cultivated their market for cultural products and print media as efficiently as others sold material goods Hispanic Periodicals and Mexican foods and delivered specialized services to the community of immigrants.

The Mexican community truly benefitted in that the entrepreneurs and businessmen did provide needed goods, information and services that were often denied by the larger society through official and open segregation. And, of course, writers, artists and intellectuals provided both high and popular culture and entertainment in a language not offered by Anglo-American society: Spanishlanguage books and periodicals, silent films with Spanish-dialog frames and Spanish-language drama and vaudeville, among other entertainment and popular art forms.

They and many others used the newspapers as a stable source of employment and as a base from which they launched their books or wrote plays and revues for the theater flourishing in Los Angeles and San Antonio. In addition to the publishing houses owned by the large dailies, in the same cities and in smaller population centers there were many other newspapers publishing books.

The largest and most productive publishing houses resided in San Antonio. Issuing and distributing hundreds of titles A Brief History per year, it was the largest publishing establishment owned by an Hispanic in the United States.

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Another was the Viola Novelty Company, owned by P. The Whitt Company, run by descendants of an English officer who had remained in Mexico after his tour of duty during the French Intervention, still exists today, but only as a printing establishment. These houses produced everything from religious books to political propaganda, from how-to books such as Ignacio E. As mentioned in the above section on the exile press, much of the counter-revolution was directed from the U. Rife with local color and inspired by oral lore of the immigrants, it owed its origins to Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England and arrived in Spain via France.

In the transition from a colonial mentality to one of independence. To write is to populate. Over a long period of time, the inexhaustive details provided by the cronistas served a central purpose: to contribute to the forging Hispanic Periodicals of nationhood, describing it and, as much as possible, moralizing for it. The cronistas are powerful nationalists because they desire independence and the greatness of the country as a whole. In the Southwest, it came to serve purposes never imagined in Mexico or Spain. The cronistas were very influenced by popular jokes, folk anecdotes and vernacular speech, and in general their columns mirrored the surrounding social environment.

But this was always done not through direct preaching but through sly humor and a burlesque of fictional characters in the community who represented general ignorance or admiringly adopted Anglo ways as superior to those of Hispanics.

La olla a presión del conflicto palestinoisraelí

These writers portrayed the two ways of life as being in direct conflict, down to the food consumed, the clothes worn and the furniture placed in the home. The worst transgressors in adopting these ways were labeled agringados69 and renegados, that is, gringoized and renegades originally, the term renegade referred to those who denied Christ.

And Mexican Americans, who were seen as traitors beyond hope, were similarly A Brief History branded in addition to being called pocho, the derogatory term refering to an individual of Mexican origin but no longer Mexican. Julio G. Arce was a newspaper publisher from Guadalajara who took up exile in San Francisco, vowing never to return to Mexico owing to his disillusionment with the Revolution.

Born in to an eminent physician in Guadalajara, Arce dedicated himself to journalism by founding a newspaper when he was only fourteen: El Hijo del Progreso The Child of Progress. Arce later credited all of the political positions and even his university chair to his pro-government journalistic stances. In , he had to pack up his family and abandon his home and belongings to escape to Guadalajara in fear of violent reprisals as revolutionary forces arrived in triumph.

In Guadalajara, he started a new newspaper, El Diario del Occidente The Western Daily , and attempted to protect the free press from persecution by the revolutionaries. Castro; the newspaper shortly thereafter was bought by Mexican and Guatemalan business people who appointed Arce director.

When the newspaper was once again sold after Arce had profes To partially underwrite the cost of publication of his new periodical, Arce requested funds from the government of President Venustiano Carranza, supposedly to offset the propaganda put out by enemies of the Revolution writing in other U.

In this, Arce celebrated the spirit of immigrant journalism. Indeed, his newspaper delivered news of the homeland while informing the immigrant community about news and the culture of the host country; he sought to ease the separation from the old and the adjustment to the new. As was the convention in such local-color columns, his pseudonymous alter ego would report weekly on his own adventures and observations in the local community. Through this simple artifice, he satirized humorously the errant customs that were becoming all too common in the colonia, such as Mexicans remembering their heritage only during the celebration of Mexican Independence Day, or Mexicans calling themselves Spaniards to assume greater social prestige and avoid the barbs of discrimination.

By and large, Ulica assumed the elite perch of satirist observing the human comedy as a selfelected conscience for the Mexican immigrant community. And while his message was rarely subtle, his language and imagery were so richly reflective of common immigrant humor and folk anecdote that they are worthy of study as literature, a literature that arises directly out of the immigrant experience and its folklore. After this introduction lightly satirizing the U. Bill of Rights, Ulica goes on to narrate the apocryphal tale of a Mexican immigrant woman who defenestrated her husband and was acquitted by the courts.

According to her testimony, Mengilda went to all lengths to dress and eat stylishly, according to U.

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1.2 Moisés: el gran libertador

Hispanic Periodicals joles, menudo y pozole. It turns out that Inacio came home one Saturday with his fingernails so unkempt he was a working stiff, after all that his wife insisted on hiring a girl to give him a manicure. When he locked himself in his room and refused to cooperate, Mengilda became enraged and tossed him out the window and then threw a monkey wrench at him, splitting his skull.

The poor man expired on the street below. After an eloquent defense by her lawyer, who insists that Mengilda is just a poor foreigner struggling to better herself and become cultured in the United States, Ulica shows Mengilda being exonerated by unanimous jury decision. After this, narrator Ulica breaks in to emphasize to the reader that this is just one of a legion of incidents that happen every day in the United States, and that as soon as pretty compatriot women arrive, they find out that Julio G. Arce they are the bosses here, and their husbands must remain shy of heart, short on words and with still hands meaning that they cannot beat their wives anymore.

It seems that no matter where Ulica turns, he encounters the deflated remains of once proud and independent Mexican men. A general of the Mexican Revolution, now a waiter in a third-rate restaurant, bemoans his fate to Ulica: In this country women do as they damn well please. My wife, who used to be so She does not heed me, she locks herself up with male friends to play bridge and who knows what else, and when I call her on it, she curses me out.

Back home, I could knock her teeth out for less, but here, if you do that, they hang you in San Quentin. She, too, attempts to adopt all of the customs here and rid herself of the trappings of the homeland. The episode ends with Pains dragging Hungrious into the bathroom to give him a sound beating. If these women are anxious to shuck off their Hispanic culture, their loyalty to the mother tongue is even more suspect, as Ulica ably demonstrates in the letters he receives at the newspaper from the likes of Mrs.

And when it comes to the entry of women into the workplace, more specifically the office domain of men, Ulica outdoes himself. However, the main problem is that even after Miss Pink has found out that Ulica is married, she compromises his modesty. She removes her hose in front of him and changes out of her street shoes, leaving hose and shoes in back of his chair. She tells him that she hopes he is not like her other bosses, who liked to pick up the stockings and smell and kiss them. When Ulica confronts the steno about her typing errors, she quits, complaining that he is the worst boss she has ever had, because the married Ulica never invited her to a show or to dinner.

And that tells you exactly what Ulica and his cohorts thought about the morality of women in the workplace. In this outrageous story, Ulica creates Mrs. Blackberry, a Mexican woman who has just married an Anglo after divorcing her Mexican husband because he refused to wash his face with gasoline in order to whiten it. While Ulica was without a doubt expressing a bourgeois sensibility in censuring Mexican women for adopting supposed Anglo-American customs and especially identifying the flapper as the most representative figure in this acculturation, his point of view was by no means exclusive to his social class.

Another immigrant journalist and creative writer, who identified himself as a working-class Mexican immigrant, Daniel Venegas, expressed similar views in his satirical weekly newspaper El Malcriado The Brat , and in his picaresque novel of immigration Las aventuras de Don Chipote o cuando los pericos mamen The Adventures of Don Chipote, or When Parakeets Suckle Their Young.

The message of the novel, by the way, is that Mexicans should not be deceived by the glitter of the United States, for Mexicans will never become rich in the United States as long as parakeets do not suckle their young; Mexicans serve only as beasts of burden in the States and as lambs to be fleeced by both corrupt institutions and individuals.

It is even more ironic that Venegas, who so identified with the working-class immigrant, would not make common cause with working-class women. This is amply seen in El Malcriado, which he single-handedly wrote, illustrated and typeset. Hispanic Periodicals assimilation, cultural annihilation and exogamy. Nationalism could not develop as strongly in an environment of such diverse Hispanic ethnicity. We shall make an effort to further than greatest advancement and well being of us, who far from our beloved homelands, must join together on foreign soil under only one banner: that of brotherhood.

But standing on their Hispanic cultural background, the predominantly male journalists and cronistas quite often did attempt to influence the community in tightening the reins on Hispanic women. But more than satire and censure, the cartoons make apparent the sexual attraction that Latino men felt for these women of supposedly looser morals than Latin women. Almost all are displayed with flesh peeking out of lingerie or from under their short dresses. At least two of the cartoons have purposefully ambiguous legends with titillating double entendres. In another 27 March , a flapper is raising the skirt of her dress while a man with a cigarette lighter is reclining at her feet and A Brief History in front of a parked car.

Again, flappers were a frequent preoccupation in these whimsical pieces. However, upon assuming the convention of cronista and taking on The Yanqui flapper always makes sure that her ensemble of exaggerations looks chic, as they say in German sic. They also possess that divine jewel of finely imitated frigidity. That disdainful arching of their eyes that upon crossing their legs almost from.

That Latin would-be flapper likes to be looked at, and to attract attention paints her face into a mask. Two poorly placed splashes of rouge on the cheeks and four really noticeable piles of lipstick on the lips. They criticize new fads; then they adopt them, to the extreme of exaggeration. Her dress, a futurist version of the latest style, is a thousandfold suggestive with its divine silk.

That men should look her over as she walks is her supreme desire. If someone should mention marriage, her answer is a loud laugh that cuts the most sublime illusion. Assassinating laugh! Expert queen of the latest dangerous dance jump, make-up streaked, superficial, fickle girl, like a liberated slave entering a new life. In contrast, they make me remember my grandmother, who as she sewed told me of flying giants, in a voice as shaky as a lost prayer.

La Tumba de los Patriarcas -Mezquita de Ibrahim para los musulmanes-, es el lugar donde presuntamente se hizo enterrar el patriarca Abraham, venerado por los dos credos. Para los musulmanes, la cuarta. Muchos aprovechan los recovecos para cotillear que se cuece en la otra parte. Tras la masacre, dos de los tres accesos al templo fueron cerrados por orden militar por temor a represalias. Al Sharana me conduce por las angostas callejuelas de la Casbah mercado palestino. A pocos metros me encuentro con Jamal, un veterano comerciante de tela local.

No somos animales, respetamos a todos en esta tierra", relata indignado. Desde las alturas se divisan en las colinas las cuatro imponentes torres militares de color gris que vigilan la ciudad y las residencias de los colonos dentro del casco antiguo. Un cartel reza: "Estas son propiedades palestinas ilegalmente ocupadas".

Su colega Mohamed remarca las diferencias legales que rigen a unos y otros. I need my siblings. Juana M. Ramos was born in Santa Ana, El Salvador. She has been living in New York since She is a writer, poet and educator. Her poetry book Palabras al borde de mis labios was published in Mexico by miCieloediciones. She is coauthor of the book of testimonies Tomamos la palabra: mujeres en la guerra civil de El Salvador published by UCA Editores in Her poems have also appeared in anthologies, digital journals and blogs and literary magazines in Latin America, Spain, and the United States.

Llego a ti y me tiras un bocado de esperanza que me mantiene viva, me da un poco de calma. Con la palabra avergonzada retorno a tu boca que se abre y me repite una promesa. I arrive to you and you throw me a bite of hope That keeps me alive, gives me a bit of calm. With the ashamed word I return to your mouth That opens and repeats a promise to me. City that urges me to tell it all To observe it all: news proclaimed in Its moment under the bench of a random station, An older woman dressed in white who preaches The apocalypse with the hysteria of the abandoned.

Siren city, unending chant, compels me to stop, I tie myself to the memories; I die each night in your night, But it is not my time and I return to the voice of your chaotic beat, Banquet city inhabited by many Tantalus, stone over which I build my hell each day; I carry you on my back, I push you to the summit, entire city that plunges over me. Translated by Iara Cardo. Mariana Vacs was born in Rosario, Argentina. She is a poet and cultural activist.

She has published the books Infimo Infinito and Espina de Maguey Vos, el vuelo de un aguilucho, un puntito en la tarde. I opened one of your books, as I begin it is you the one who speaks. I hear you elongating words, you are there fragile like water. I like your voice as it appears while I open the book, it is as if you were seated next to me looking at the sky together.

I, a plane wake tracing furrows with air. You, the flight of an eaglet, a little dot in the afternoon. Regina Jamison is a writer and educator who lives in Brooklyn, New York. Weightless, through monsoon rains gale winds you fly persistent, valiant, you personify the hero. Milkweed, Common Tiger, names you are called, but Monarch fits you best of all. Elsa Batista is the current director of La casa de la Cultura Dominicana de New Jersey and is also the executive director of Rumbo Dominicano magazine. Each night a bird dies in my eyes in the tired desolation of my sheets Each bird is a reliquary where are jealously kept the torments waiting for the critical and precise second Each night my pillow is dead bird victim of my old and recently uncovered truth false dawns of so many inaccurate awakenings Wings of the coldness, wrap my sorrow planting dead birds in my eyelids to multiply then in the realty of the ashes Parade of winged corpses leaves its watery trail in each gap of the nocturnality Each night there is a less bird in the laugh An smile is missing in the window where done dust, the necromantic soul it is not lie of the eternal.

Poet, essayist and narrator. He has published articles in specialized national and international magazines and is the author of the books of poems: Los incendios de la soledad. Poemas de amor y homenaje , La rosa de los vientos His poems have been translated into English and Portuguese. Pilar Gonzalez Santos is a New York-based actress, writer, and translator.

She recently co-directed Legally Blonde, Jr. Her translation work includes the poetry of writers such as Tomas Modesto Galan and Eduardo Lantigua. He was granted the Guggenheim fellowship in Peatlands , translated by Anna Crowe and introduced by W. Herbert, was published in , by Arc Publications in Great Britain. Al mismo tiempo la punta de la cola, el latigazo alerta, la lengua como perro agazapada al piso. Toda la fuerza y el enojo se untan al suelo, se adentran, se achatan tensos a su presa. Barely a blade of grass it flusters, making dust run on the level, a line upon the horizontal.

It stays reared above splendid groundwork through an impulse in the neck, through a continuing of a thousand coils advancing, through a tightened and contractile effort.

Teaching translation from Spanish to English: worlds beyond words - PDF Free Download

All that strength and anger chafe the ground beneath it, going inwards, flattening and tensing for its prey. Marianela Medrano is a Dominican writer and poet, with a PhD in psychology living in Connecticut since Shibboleth was born where one people breaks into the other where the lost souls breathe under the river She is not a dream nor is she an invention of my tongue Shibboleth streams down patiently—as any fluid being does— A river when it makes a sea is more than a river I have learned her depth She is blood No matter what side of the river your are on sorrow speaks only one language Shibboleth needs no pebbles under her tongue You know she is real when I speak When I fade away Shibboleth breathes her parsley breath into me She is the rite that brings me back Almost at my dying moment she spits her green concoction on the ground Taking it she builds her house on the Western front We flow downstream sealed in one image We are the twin mirrors in which shame is reflected The hateful lover splits us in three through the years An infernal trinity of perejil.

From the other side a sun bigger than the island blinds us Shibboleth sees the fire tongue waving like the flag of war she knows is only the beginning Far beyond death we find each other again sealed in the same chamber living because the other breathes We are garden and earth seed and flower gun and bullet corpse and death The past breaks and holds us I know Shibboleth is real when my tongue stumbles on the block of history. He instructed his soldiers to ask the people to pronounce the word perejil. Attila F. Since he lives in Slovakia.

Her scholarly and creative interests merge in her study of the poetry and art of Africana and Women of Color. As an educator and writer, she strives to address the power and the politics of creative expression and voice as essential instruments of social justice practice and transformation. The people say go with wide open mind At the rim where head meets hair, to read subtle bondage takes reel-time. They called us Pinckneys in historical rewind. Said we property, but I refuse this despair. The people say Go, with wide open mind! Leave us to work alone in hot air, damp, wet, heat, and sun, feet wrapped in twine.

To read subtle bondage takes real time. Other Pinckneys moved north and moved mind s West African blood stays; our bodies repair The people say go with wide open mind! We feel, eat, and breathe better, share love in-kind, build AME churches, Geechie communities, literacy inclined. To read subtle bondage takes reel-time. Reconstruction, jim crow, civil-rights and post-race opined greed, madness, restitution declined, it is time! The people say go with wide open mind. His poems have also appeared in literary magazines and anthologies home and abroad. Linda Morales Caballero was born in Peru but has lived in several countries.

In she founded www. Website: www. Palpo un pino en la calle y me abandono a hojas, estrellas y ramas… una guerra con el viento me barre urbanas batallas. Bajo la luna creciente de Elmhurst Ave. I touch a pine tree in the street and abandon myself to leaves, stars and branches… a war against the wind sweeps for me urban battles. The tree, as alive as my eyes, tastes like seaweed, like Christmas like joy. Under the crescent moon of Elmhurst Ave. I dream spider web poetry. On Whitney a turbulent graffiti, grilled among shades no longer gives me the chills from a few thousand years ago. Your embrace cleansed the night from the turbid haze.

Your verses of angels and domes, written on my chest, push my ribs towards blue skies. Alkatreb has worked as an art critic and journalist since contributing to many major Arabic speaking newspapers in Lebanon, London and Syria. The only hand is not yet dry, it turns on the lamp, trembling, throws the shirt on the side of the bed, and wrings tears from satin. The only hand falls upon the cheek Like a cart tumbling in to a ditch. Then, after half an hour, it forgives like a childhood friend breathing on your shoulder, or sleeping.

It holds the rose in the midday heat. It shells the peanut, or stabs someone between ribs. The only hand is not dry. The Tree on which the birds of earth sought refuge, the tree under which I laughed to death, set traps, and put my school books to dry, the tree that was my home in the wild, I saw it from far away being loaded on a truck.

Zulema Moret Argentina. As a poet she has published Cuaderno de viaje solitario Poetry, Venezuela: Edit. Her poems were translated into English, German, French and Italian. The blind spy magician stays locked in that restroom that reeks of everyday urine of abject military parades while the great human horde confronts unperishing complaints.

Raymond is tri-cultural, tri-lingual, lived in Germany and Italy while in the Army, and served as a Paratrooper in Afghanistan. He is the Co-founder of Filmlinkup, a tech start-up for students pursuing careers in the art of filmmaking. I wore an innocent bowl cut like boys in Pull-Up ads. Yo era gordo : chubby cheeked, back in fish smelling Providence. Lavoe was jamming, las congas, timbales y claves had everyone moving and you were cortando la pista con blanquitas in dim lit corners exposing thick white long legs craving to be sniffed — licked.

You attracted a beautiful crowd full of praise, glory while your brown self looked like a God all powerful and knowing. I felt the love too, their whiteness called me to trace them with my fingers and suck them like you did. I was transfixed on becoming something more than a kid by your side while you lied to Mami.

First stab at white ladies birthed a fiend with a numb tongue. That cracked world is dust. Kianny N. The Dominican Republic, Soy desecho, futuro quebrado, viscosidad, desagrado al tacto, al olfato y a la moral. Soy, no, no soy lo que pudo haber sido. Being this far into it, I am the blood clot, the cold waste that hinders, tiny atrophies that stopped their race to decay each other. I am for whom one second became the fall.

Remains While sleeping, I saw my grandmother in a white nightgown asking for air— a tired angel, but with radiant skin, hidden wrinkles, and stains covered in dye. Translated by the author. America, the Beautiful This is America, the dark house of fiction, the dark horse, the battle ground. Would You Marry Me? Alone Nighttime came to her like a tame and saffron dragon but the women in the neighborhood disapproved of the nocturnal shadows so she ate alone. Left Over Stolen from your drawer is the view of the sea missing from the stage are the nimble fingers of your youth removed from beneath the blanket are the words and phrases so apt to win you praise absent from the emerald is the woman who loved you and laced with cyanide is the familiar welcome to the remains.

The Gray Pilgrim Operating on instinct rather than intellect, I pull up to the gas pump in need of coffee as much as my car needs fuel. His bike is an expression of himself. Walt Whitman rides a Harley Davidson. Period 11 Observation I. The Wound the exile refuses to sit on the sidelines nursing a wound, there are things to be learned Edward Said In English, a wound is the past of the wind winding itself up, the footprint of a storm and not the lightening, the rubble, in that instant, of past ages. The Gay Travelers Look both ways before you hold her hand.

The house 1 I did not forget the house. The House 3 A word of tears between the two covers of a book. Repatriated Poetry poem 1: chair and in the reality of here, in the reality of now, in the reality from where I write has begun to dawn. Contacto: Carlos Aguasaco carlos artepoetica. Hostage for W. Love on a bicycle Torture bandages the eyes of damned pleasure, the lovers provide clavicles, migraines, they do not keep track of time, the night unearths an orphanage, denounces the other face of emptiness.

In the middle of reason, someone explodes the silence. Come, live in my shade Then take me to your after life, twig by twig like fig trees No one has ever heard of my death neither have you; for I live tall, mighty, proud, trunk by trunk like sequoia trees Write me like ancient Persians, or modern, like Maryam Read me; remember me, word by word like evergreen trees. Bajadur Bajadur es tu nombre, Bajadur, el poeta, emperador de Delhi emperador del mundo, pero el mundo es incierto es apenas el filo de una espada, gastada. Escribes de la nada, de la insignificancia, del absurdo.

Una piedra robada De los suelos sacros de Ingapirca, Gramo de un instante terminal.

Sharif, Omar 1932-2015

El trabajo de un artesano hasta lograr la figura acordada. Adivinanzas Las adivinanzas no son entretenimientos de viejos sabios ni son las historias que te cuenta la abuela a la hora de dormir. Such is my hope for words— blowing syllables up to hold a world close to breaking. Cristal He visto sopladores de cristal estrecharle de poquito a mucho. Fine Tuned A teenage boy with blue green eyes lies still. Lily pads cover the lake, rise from the muck of fallen trunks and storm debris. Green algae thick on the pond.

Early summer and it is cool. In San Miguel my sweet girl is dying of cancer. The wall built between Tijuana and San Diego extends into the Pacific. Deported mothers kept from their babies by finger-thick slats, use fingers, Kissing fingers for te amo— te echo de menos.

A sparrow has a dirt bath and the bottlebrush buckeye blossoms stand upright like drill sergeants instructing the clouds and sun. Monarchs appear among the white and yellow butterflies in the rain garden. A praying mantis wavers on a blade of grass.